The case that a man cannot ejaculate from many reasons during sperm collection, for example due to tumors or In cases a man’s ejaculate may contain very few healthy sperm or even no healthy sperm at all, which referred to as azoospermia.
There are 3 processes to retrieve sperm by a small amount of fluid and testis tissue is taken by biopsy under local anesthesia and the embryologist laboratory and the sperm cells extracted are used for ICSI.
- Testicular Epididymal Sperm Extraction (TESE) is a surgical biopsy of the testis
- Testicular Epididymal Sperm Aspiration or Extraction (TESA) is performed by inserting a needle in the testis and aspirating fluid and tissue with negative pressure.
- Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA) is the process where a small needle is passed directly into the head of the epididymis through the scrotal skin and fluid is aspirated.